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This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Start your review of FM Anthony rated it it was amazing May 26, Adam Vanderkolk is currently reading it Apr 18, Nicholas Nelissen marked it as to-read Dec 08, Linda Alldredge is currently reading it Feb 16, Tiifu Hali is currently reading it Apr 15, Robert Personett is currently reading it Apr 18, Jared Givens marked it as to-read Jun 22, Wayne Boyer is currently reading it Aug 21, Jerri Rush is currently reading it Sep 05, Kathy Ormsby is currently reading it Sep 13, The credit line, telling who produced the map, is just above the legend.
This date is important when determining how accurately the map data might be expected to match what you will encounter on the ground. Index to Boundaries 7.
The index to boundaries diagram appears in the lower or right margin of all sheets. This diagram, which is a miniature of the map, shows the boundaries that occur within the map area, such as county lines and state boundaries. Adjoining Sheets Diagram 8.
Maps at all standard scales contain a diagram that illustrates the adjoining sheets. On maps at , and larger scales and at ,, scale, the diagram is called the index to adjoining sheets. It consists of as many rectangles representing adjoining sheets as are necessary to surround the. The diagram usually contains nine rectangles, but the number may vary depending on the locations of the adjoining sheets.go
Land navigation - Wikipedia
All represented sheets are identified by their sheet numbers. Sheets of an adjoining series, whether published or planned, that are at the same scale are represented by dashed lines. The series number of the adjoining series is indicated along the appropriate side of the division line between the series.
Elevation Guide 9. This is normally found in the lower right margin. It is a miniature characterization of the terrain shown. The terrain is represented by bands of elevation, spot elevations, and major drainage features. The elevation guide provides the map reader with a means of rapid recognition of major landforms.
Declination Diagram This is located in the lower margin of large-scale maps and indicates the angular relationships of true north, grid north, and magnetic north. On maps at , scale, this information is expressed as a note in the lower margin. In recent edition maps, there is a note indicating the conversion of azimuths from grid to magnetic and from magnetic to grid next to the declination diagram. Bar Scales These are located in the center of the lower margin. They are rulers used to convert map distance to ground distance.
Maps have three or more bar scales, each in a different unit of measure. Care should be exercised when using the scales, especially in the selection of the unit of measure that is needed. Contour Interval Note This note is found in the center of the lower margin normally below the bar scales. It states the vertical distance between adjacent contour lines of the map.
When supplementary contours are used, the interval is indicated. In recent edition maps, the contour interval is given in meters instead of feet. Spheroid Note This note is located in the center of the lower margin. Spheriods ellipsoids have specific parameters that define the X Y Z axis of the earth.
The spheriod is an integral part of the datum. Grid Note It gives information pertaining to the grid system used and the interval between grid lines, and it identifies the UTM grid zone number. Projection Note The projection system is the framework of the map. For military maps, this framework is of the conformal type; that is, small areas of the surface of the earth retain their true shapes on the projection; measured angles closely approximate true values; and the scale factor is the same in all directions from a point. The projection note is located in the center of the lower margin.
Refer to DMA for the development characteristics of the conformal-type projection systems. Vertical Datum Note The vertical datum or vertical-control datum is defined as any level surface for example, mean sea level taken as a surface of reference from which to determine elevations. In the United States, Canada, and Europe, the vertical datum refers to the mean sea level surface.
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However, in parts of Asia and Africa, the vertical-control datum may vary locally and is based on an assumed elevation that has no connection to any sea level surface. Map readers should habitually check the vertical datum note on maps, particularly if the map is used for low-level aircraft navigation, naval gunfire support, or missile target acquisition.
Horizontal Datum Note The horizontal datum or horizontal-control datum is defined as a geodetic reference point of which five quantities are known: latitude, longitude, azimuth of a line from this point, and two constants, which are the parameters of reference ellipsoid.
- FM 3-25.26 Map Reading and Land Navigation.
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These are the basis for horizontal-control surveys. The horizontal-control datum may extend over a continent or be limited to a small local area. Maps and charts produced by DMA are produced on 32 different horizontal-control data. Map readers should habitually check the horizontal datum note on every map or chart,. This is to ensure the products are based on the same horizontal datum.
If products are based on different horizontal-control data, coordinate transformations to a common datum must be performed. UTM coordinates from the same point computed on different data may differ as much as meters. Control Note It indicates the special agencies involved in the control of the technical aspects of all the information that is disseminated on the map.
Preparation Note It indicates the agency responsible for preparing the map. Printing Note This note is also located in the center of the lower margin. It indicates the agency responsible for printing the map and the date the map was printed. The printing data should not be used to determine when the map information was obtained.
Grid Reference Box This box is normally located in the center of the lower margin. It contains instructions for composing a grid reference.
Unit imprint and Symbol The unit imprint and symbol is on the left side of the lower margin. It identifies the agency that prepared and printed the map with its respective symbol. This information is important to the map user in evaluating the reliability of the map. Legend The legend is located in the lower left margin. It illustrates and identifies the topographic symbols used to depict some of the more prominent features on the map.
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The symbols are not always the same on every map. Always refer to the legend to avoid errors when reading a map. Under certain conditions, special notes and scales may be added to aid the map user. The following are examples: a. This is an explanation of technical terms or a translation of terms on maps of foreign areas where the native language is other than English. Certain maps require a note indicating the security classification.
Related FM 3-25.26 - Map Reading and Land Navigation (U.S. Army Field Manual)
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