The war was fought with great ferocity on both sides. The war mobilized many artists and intellectuals to take up arms. Effect on the Novel The Civil War drove into political exile some promising novelists whose narrative art matured abroad. Requiem for a Spanish Peasant. These works offer devastating appraisals of the Spanish political scene from multiple perspectives and with complex narrative techniques. Considered by some to be the best prose writer of his era in the Spanish language, Ayala has published many volumes of essays on philosophy, pedagogy, sociology, and political theory.
Continuing his literary experimentation, Cela attained greater technical heights in La colmena ; The Hive , portraying divided Madrid society during the harsh winter of — By his death, in , Cela—who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in —had published by his own count more than books, including a dozen novels, numerous story collections, travel books, critical essays, poetry, and literary sketches. The sociopolitical trauma of civil conflict with its cultural and economic uncertainty revived outmoded forms of realism.
Smoke on the Ground , which depicts the miserable existence of uneducated cave dwellers, Miguel Delibes conveyed critical concern for a society 81 7 The Literature of Spain and Latin America 7 whose natural values are under constant threat. A publisher, lawyer, teacher, and journalist, Delibes was the author of more than 50 volumes of novels, memoirs, essays, and travel and hunting books and received the prestigious Cervantes Prize in El hereje ; The Heretic , perhaps his masterpiece, depicts the abuse of power by the Spanish Inquisition.
In Quiroga became the second woman elected to the Royal Spanish Academy. During the s, several competent, committed younger novelists strengthened intellectual dissent. By the s, gray, pedestrian critical realism had run its course.
It is isolated, almost inaccessible, and terribly provincial; critics have seen it as a microcosm of Spain. Preferring British and American paradigms that devoted more attention to style, subjectivity, and psychological narrative than did the dominant trends in Spanish literature of the period, Benet condemned costumbrismo and social realism as unimaginative. The Farewell Angel , trace the consequences of social conditions in Franco society on individuals. Although he published his first novel in , Gonzalo Torrente Ballester came to prominence only in the s. He received the Cervantes Prize in He received the Cervantes Prize in , as had Delibes and Cela before him.
The Generation of was recognized in the s as a distinct novelistic group. Stranded , all of which explore the solitude of middle-aged women and their deceptions in love. Pombo, originally known as a poet, turned later to the novel.
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He was elected to the Spanish Academy in Theatre Post—Civil War Spain suffered no lack of skillful playwrights to provide politically acceptable entertainment. Long-censored members of the Realist Group were compared to contemporaneous British playwrights and novelists called the Angry Young Men. Antonio Gala, a multitalented, original, and commercially successful playwright, debunked historical myths while commenting allegorically on contemporary Spain via expressionistic humour and comedy.
Jaime Salom, like Gala, defies ideological classification. Some relaxation of censorship in the s prompted interest in the Theatre of the Absurd, its main exponent in Spain being longtime expatriate Fernando Arrabal, a playwright, novelist, and filmmaker who has drawn some of the raw material for his works from his traumatic childhood. Using black humour and grotesque and Surrealist elements, Arrabal creates nightmarish works.
Poetry The Civil War and its traumatic aftermath prompted the abandonment of pure poetry for simpler approaches. Formal discipline, devotion to clarity through direct imagery, and a reduced vocabulary were stressed, and the social and human content increased. These altruistic writers renounced artistic experimentation and aesthetic gratification in favour of propagandistic goals, sociological themes, and authorial self-effacement. Some, such as Vicente Gaos and Gloria Fuertes, preferred existential emphases. Their poetry, often neo-Baroque, self-consciously cosmopolitan, and intertextual, was a late 20th-century variant of culteranismo; it emphasized museums, foreign films, international travel—anything but contemporary Spain with its problems.
The official language of the kingdom of Aragon in the 12th century, Catalan has a literary tradition dating from that period. The earliest written materials date from the 12th century. In the late 20th century, as Catalonia achieved greater autonomy, Catalan revived as the principal language of politics and education, as well as of public life in general, in Catalonia. Linguistically, there are two main dialect groups in modern Catalan: Occidental, subdivided into West Catalan and Valencian; and Oriental, subdivided into East Catalan, Balearic, and Roussillonnais and including the dialect spoken in Alghero, Sardinia, where Catalan was introduced in the 14th century.
After the end of the Spanish Civil War, politically motivated disputes as to whether Valencian and Catalan are distinct languages or variants of the same language occurred within Spain, becoming especially bitter in the late 20th century. The Valencian community fiercely promoted the Valencian language, while much of Catalonia considered the Valencian language a dialect of Catalan. These various dialects differ only in minor respects details of 95 7 The Literature of Spain and Latin America 7 pronunciation, vocabulary, and verb conjugation and are easily mutually intelligible.
The dialectal differences are not usually reflected in the written language. Catalan is most closely related to the Occitan language of southern France and to Spanish, but it is clearly distinct from both. Catalan differs from Occitan less than from Spanish but often uses different vowel sounds and diphthongs and also has somewhat different grammatical conventions.
The close relationship between Catalan and Occitan is reflected in the origins of the body of written works known as Catalan literature, which has its roots in medieval Occitan. Medieval Period The earliest Catalan literature can be traced to poetic forms cultivated by the troubadours, who dominated the courts of southern France, northern Spain, and northern Italy from the 11th through the 13th century.
In the 14th century the influence of the 96 7 Catalan and Galician Literature 7 troubadours began to lessen, and Catalan poets turned to northern France for inspiration. This groundwork would make the 15th century the great period of Catalan poetry. As the 15th century advanced, Valencia emerged as a new centre of literary activity.
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Catalan by birth—he was born in Barcelona—he wrote solely in Castilian and inaugurated a new school of poetry in that dialect. By the time his works were published in , a year after his death, Catalan poetry had been all but dormant for 50 years. Four great chronicles, together with the works of Ramon Llull, represent the peak of 98 7 Catalan and Galician Literature 7 medieval Catalan prose. Known as Blanquerna, it is the narrative of the lives of Blanquerna and his parents, Evast and Aloma, whose marriage comes to represent an ideal Christian marriage; successive chapters tell of stages in the life of Blanquerna, who ascends from altar boy to the papacy but then abandons his throne to enter monastic life.
The narrative aims at representing all aspects of Christian existence.
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Metge also wrote Lo somni c. The chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanc c. Curial and Guelfa draws on Desclot, the only other Catalan romance to do so. In prose, only scholars—chiefly antiquaries and historians—still wrote in Catalan. Verdaguer also wrote lyric and mystic verse. Miquel Costa i Llobera cultivated classical perfection in poetic form. Like similar movements in Europe and the Americas, Modernisme was preoccupied with naturalistic depictions of society, particularly of the rural world.
Modernisme also manifested itself in Catalan drama at the turn of the 20th century. Marta of the Lowlands , a story of social defiance and 7 The Literature of Spain and Latin America 7 spiritual regeneration.
Noucentisme was both a continuation of and a reaction to Modernisme. Whereas Modernisme had been rural in its focus, Noucentisme was urban; whereas Modernisme was internationalist, Noucentisme attempted to create a uniquely Catalan style. Joan Salvat-Papasseit and J. Unlike Modernisme, Noucentisme was more strongly tied to political and institutional action. Many Catalan intellectuals fled abroad, and those who remained found the political climate hardly conducive to literary activity Conditions in Catalonia remained unfavourable to Spanish general and dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera, Catalan writers after the war, with literature, which suffered from Gen.
Josep Pla and Joan Fuster amassed a considerable readership for their collections of historical 7 The Literature of Spain and Latin America 7 and biographical essays. A series of novels by Baltasar Porcel, beginning with Cavalls cap a la fosca ; Horses into the Night , similarly takes a Majorcan family as its focus. The generation of writers active in the s experimented with and substantially expanded the traditional boundaries of the Catalan novel.
Terenci Moix was perhaps the most prominent member of this generation. Of the other poets who wrote in Catalan during the second half of the 20th century, the most influential was Gabriel Ferrater. The witty verse of David Jou shows an approach much more firmly grounded in traditional forms than most Catalan poetry of the period. The poetry of Pere Gimferrer, who shifted between Catalan and Castilian over the course of his career, shows his erudition and his admiration for T. Although Carner, Espriu, and Oliver wrote for the stage prior to that decade, their work could not be performed before the general public.
As the Catalan theatre started to recover and perform the work of canonical writers such as Espriu, it also promoted younger playwrights, such as Josep Maria Benet i Jornet and Sergi Belbel. At the turn of the 21st century, poetry continued to move away from the forms of personal expression that dominated the middle of the 20th century, and theatre turned increasingly exploratory.
Fiction also abandoned the introspective tone and themes of previous decades.
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Other novelists followed a different trend in which they sought to reconsider historical moments that had been previously ignored or suppressed by government 7 Catalan and Galician Literature 7 censorship or social taboo. Catalan literature, among the strongest of the nonnational literatures of Europe, continued to flourish in the 21st century. Established poets continued to publish and were joined by new voices, such as David Castillo.
The Catalan theatrical scene was most lively in Barcelona, and many works, including novels as well as plays and other works written for the stage, were adapted for Catalan television. Of names in the Cancioneiro da Vaticana, 75 have been tentatively identified as Galician; none achieved particular individuality.
The Romantic movement, like the Peninsular War, revived local feeling and interest in things Galician but not in the language. Eduardo Pondal y Abente, a bard of a dimly sensed heroic past, was concerned with nature and Celtic mythology. Prose showed no comparable achievement. The 20th century, especially after , produced an abundance of Galician poets who underlined the identification of Galician literature with a markedly poetic regional temperament and language.
Presented in alphabetical order, they include novelists, dramatists, poets, and nonfiction writers from the Middle Ages to the 21st century. April 25, , Zamora, Spain—d. After studying law in Madrid, he went to the University of Oviedo in , received his degree, and took a position in the university as professor of law and political economy, a post he held until his death.
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